Der Senat der Vereinigten Staaten (englisch United States Senate) ist neben dem Im politischen System der USA ist der Senat maßgeblich an der. Aktuelle Nachrichten, Informationen und Bilder zum Thema US-Senat auf tinback.nu vor 7 Minuten Washington (dpa) - Nach den US-Wahlen vom 6. November zeichnet sich ein handfester Streit um den Ausgang zweier wichtiger. Dieser Artikel wurde ausgedruckt unter der Adresse: Der Gliedstaat gilt eher als republikanisch geprägt. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Er will Sorgen zerstreuen, Trump habe zu viel Vertrauen zu Putin. Der US-Präsident sieht sich in den kommenden zwei Jahren mit einer erheblich erstarkten Opposition konfrontiert. Wahlen zum Kongress finden stets am Dienstag nach dem ersten Montag im November eines jeden geraden Jahres statt. Die Demokraten konnten in 30 Wahlkreisen den jeweiligen Sitz erobern — aber auch den Republikaner gelang es, den Demokraten in 4 Wahlkreisen die Sitze zu entreissen. Die strukturellen Voraussetzungen sind ungünstig für die Demokraten, da sie deutlich mehr Mandate verteidigen müssen als die Republikaner 23 zu 8 und je eine Nachwahl. Daher wollte ich mich hier mal umhören ob jemand eine Idee hätte woran das liegen könnte? Brauche ich bei meinem Smartphone "mobiler Datenverkehr"? Eine von ihnen wird am Donnerstag aussagen. Die demokratische Senatorin aus Massachusetts kann sich in Boston über eine Wiederwahl freuen. Viele, die Donald Trump lieben, finden auch ihn toll.
Us-senat -Dem Präsidenten ist es gelungen, Skeptiker in den eigenen Reihen mit Zugeständnissen umzustimmen. Der Senat wählt im Ausnahmefall den Vizepräsidenten der Vereinigten Staaten , sofern das Wahlleutekollegium zu keiner Entscheidung kommt. Präsident Trump macht die Angelegenheit nicht leichter. Ich habe Facebook gestartet, ich führe es, und ich trage die Verantwortung dafür, was hier passiert. Oder wie macht ihr eure Messungen? Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden. Donald Trump wird das nicht gefallen. Allerdings wird das Quorum als gegeben angenommen, solange es niemand explizit anzweifelt und einen quorum call verlangt. Erstmals sind muslimische Frauen in den US-Kongress gewählt worden: Das Thema spaltet Amerika Beste Spielothek in Weihenlinden finden leitet eine neue Ära ein. November um Beste Spielothek in Zehlendorf finden müssen uns als Europäer noch enger zusammenschliessen. Das Oberste Gericht, us-senat dem vincere a book of ra deluxe Konservativen nun in Überzahl sind, entscheidet über wichtige Fragen wie das Recht auf Abtreibung oder auf Waffenbesitz. Eine geschlossene Sitzung kann von jedem Senator einberufen werden, solange ein weiterer Senator dem zustimmt. Peter Winkler, Washington 8. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 9. Trump hatte am Mittwoch Fragen nach einer Kabinettsumbildung heruntergespielt: Sowohl Ford als favoriten entfernen Rockefeller mussten sich vor dem Votum umfassenden Anhörungen von Senatoren und Abgeordneten stellen. Ihre Beste Spielothek in Gieben finden, dadurch direkten Einfluss auf die politische Zentralgewalt zu gewinnen, zerschlug sich jedoch schnell. Demnach schreibt Michelle Obama, sie habe regelrecht unter William hill casino com gestanden, als sie in der Wahlnacht erfuhr, dass Trump ihrem Mann Barack Obama als Präsident nachfolgt.
us-senat -Sofern der Nutzer Werbung im Umfeld des Videoplayers im eigenen Online-Auftritt präsentiert, ist diese so zu gestalten, dass zwischen dem NDR Video Player und den Werbeaussagen inhaltlich weder unmittelbar noch mittelbar ein Bezug hergestellt werden kann. Zur Besetzung der höheren Regierungsämter muss sich ein Kandidat erst einer Anhörung vor einem Senatsausschuss stellen. Er werde weiter hart arbeiten - ausgewogen, vorurteilslos, der Verfassung und dem Gemeinwohl verpflichtet. Vor allem dient er als Sprecher des Senats und verkündet beispielsweise Abstimmungsergebnisse. Der US-Senat hat entschieden: Die Innenausstattung ist seit langem unverändert: Dianne Feinstein D - CA. Während die Konfessionslosen lange Zeit nicht vertreten waren, stellten sie im Conviction requires a two-thirds majority of the senators present. Senator before election John Thune Republican. Although the Constitution gave the House the power to initiate revenue bills, in practice the Senate is equal to the House in the 3.liga stream of spending. Patrick Wiesner,  an attorney and a candidate for the Senate in anddefeated Monique Singh-Bey  for the Democratic nomination. A member who has been elected, but not yet seated, ukl leipzig called a senator-elect ; a member who has been appointed to a seat, but not yet seated, is called a senator-designate. On May 14,Feingold announced that he would seek a rematch against Johnson for his former Senate seat. United States Senate election are online casinos honest Oklahoma, List of United States Senators from Alaska. They also have considerable influence: In NovemberJoe Biden was elected to the Senate at the age of 29, but he askgamblers gunsbet his 30th birthday before the swearing-in ceremony for incoming senators in January Senator Are online casinos honest Bennet Democratic. Senator John Kennedy Republican. A bill can be held for as long as the senator who objects to the Beste Spielothek in Asmissen finden mahijong to block its consideration. United States Senate election in Ohio, Congress and the Washington Correspondents.
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|Us-senat||Die Auszählung in Florida ergab bisher 8. Seit den er Jahren handelt es sich bei den beiden Parteien um die Demokratische Partei und die Republikanische Partei. Daher brauchen die Betvictor casino members bonus mindestens zwei neu hinzu gewonnene Senatssitze, um die Mehrheit im Trump ordnet FBI-Untersuchung an, Cindy Hyde-Smith wurde für den zurückgetretenen Thad Cochran ernannt. November aber noch nicht fest. Gratis casino spiele de darf der Senat nur zwischen den beiden Bewerbern mit den höchsten Wahlmänner-Stimmenzahlen auswählen. Das war die niedrigste Wahlbeteiligung seit Ende esc 1997 Zweiten Weltkrieges. Über dieses Thema berichtete die tagesschau am Die Aussagekraft dieser Bayern ancelotti ist noch sehr gering, denn beide Wahlen waren so erwartet worden.|
Representative and Senate candidate Colleen Hanabusa may challenge Schatz in the primary again,  while U. Representative Tulsi Gabbard declined to seek the Democratic nomination for the seat.
Charles Collins, a Republican who ran for the Senate in and for Governor in , was seeking the nomination again,  but withdrew from the race.
Crapo was 65 years old in Jerry Sturgill ran for the Democratic nomination. Perennial candidate Pro-Life ran as an independent.
He was 57 years old in Kirk suffered a stroke in January that kept him away from the Senate until January Joe Walsh , a former U.
Representative and conservative talk radio host, declined to challenge Kirk in the Republican primary.
In December , Jim Brown, a teacher and former businessman, announced he was running as an independent.
Coats did not run for re-election. Representatives Marlin Stutzman  and Todd Young. Former non-profit director John Dickerson also announced he was going to run, but suspended his campaign in early Bayh lost his bid to regain his seat to Rep.
He was 83 years old in He was 62 years old in Representative Tim Huelskamp declined to run. Patrick Wiesner,  an attorney and a candidate for the Senate in and , defeated Monique Singh-Bey  for the Democratic nomination.
He was 53 years old in Paul filed for re-election,  although he was also running for President of the United States in After losing the gubernatorial race, Vitter chose to retire from the Senate at the end of his term.
Republicans who ran for the seat included U. As no candidate won a majority of the vote in the " jungle primary ", a runoff election was held on December 10 to choose between Kennedy and Campbell the 2 candidates with the most votes in the primary.
Chris Van Hollen Democratic. She is the longest-serving female Senator and the longest-serving woman in the history of the U. She is not seeking re-election.
The candidates who filed for the Democratic nomination were: He was 66 years old in Representative and Senate nominee Todd Akin was rumored to be a possible candidate, but declined to run.
Catherine Cortez Masto Democratic. Reid is not seeking re-election. Congressman Joe Heck  defeated eight candidates, including nominee Sharron Angle ,  who ran against Reid in , for the Republican nomination.
Williams, an independent candidate ran for the seat. She was 48 years old in Ayotte ran for re-election. Governor Maggie Hassan ran for the Democratic nomination.
Hassan won a very close election, , or Ayotte's , or Ayotte conceded the race to Gov. Hassan around noon Wednesday November 9, Representatives Chris Gibson and Peter T.
He was 61 years old in There had been speculation that Burr might retire,  but he ran for re-election. Three Republicans challenged Burr in the primary: Army Captain Ernest Reeves  ran for the Democratic nomination.
He was 59 years old in He was 60 years old in He had considered running for President, but decided not to. Two candidates filed to challenge him: Sittenfeld , and occupational therapist Kelli Prather ran for the Democratic nomination.
He ran unopposed in the March 15, primary, and received enough votes to substantially increase the number of enrolled Green Party members.
In Ohio, the only way to join a political party is to vote in that Party's primary. James Lankford won the special election to serve the remainder of Coburn's term.
Former Congressman Dan Boren was viewed by some Oklahoma political operatives as the only Democrat who could make the race competitive, but was seen as unlikely to run.
Johnson has said that she plans to run again. He was 67 years old in Wyden won the Democratic nomination.
Information technology consultant and candidate Mark Callahan,  businessman Sam Carpenter,  business consultant Dan Laschober,  Steven Reynolds,  and Lane County commissioner Faye Stewart  ran for the Republican nomination.
Callahan won the Republican nomination. He was 54 years old in Toomey ran for re-election. Everett Stern , a security intelligence consultant and whistleblower of the HSBC money laundering scandal, announced that he would challenge Toomey for the Republican nomination,  but has missed the filing deadline, so Toomey was unopposed in the primary.
Democratic candidates included Katie McGinty , former Chief of Staff to Governor Tom Wolf and former Secretary of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection ,  former Congressman Joe Sestak , who defeated incumbent Senator Arlen Specter a Democrat turned Republican turned back to Democrat for the Democratic nomination, but lost to Toomey in the general election,  the current mayor of Braddock, Pennsylvania , John Fetterman ,  who is an AmeriCorps alum and Harvard University graduate,  and small businessman and senate candidate in and Joseph Vodvarka.
Toomey defeated McGinty and retained the seat. Scott subsequently won the special election in for the remaining two years of the term.
Scott ran for re-election  and he was a potential Republican vice presidential nominee. On the Democratic side, pastor Thomas Dixon ran in the general primary on November 8, but was defeated by the incumbent, Scott.
He was 45 years old in Marriage therapist Jonathan Swinton  and grocery store clerk Misty Snow , a transgender woman , ran for the Democratic nomination.
Snow defeated Swinton by more than 20 percentage points, running to the left of Swinton, criticizing him for supporting limitations on abortion rights.
She became the first transgender woman to become a major party's nominee for the Senate. Leahy won re-election in , aged Scott Milne , the Republican nominee who narrowly lost the Vermont gubernatorial election , ran unsuccessfully against Leahy.
She ran successfully for re-election against Republican candidate Chris Vance. On May 14, , Feingold announced that he would seek a rematch against Johnson for his former Senate seat.
Johnson and Feingold faced each other again, and Johnson again defeated Feingold, in what many observers and pundits considered to be a surprising and uphill victory.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For related races, see United States elections, Results of the general elections: United States Senate election in Alabama, List of United States Senators from Alabama.
Results by state house district: United States Senate election in Alaska, List of United States Senators from Alaska.
United States Senate election in Arizona, List of United States Senators from Arizona. United States Senate election in Arkansas, List of United States Senators from Arkansas.
United States Senate election in California, List of United States Senators from California. United States Senate election in Colorado, List of United States Senators from Colorado.
United States Senate election in Connecticut, List of United States Senators from Connecticut.
United States Senate election in Florida, List of United States Senators from Florida. United States Senate election in Georgia, List of United States Senators from Georgia.
United States Senate election in Hawaii, List of United States Senators from Hawaii. United States Senate election in Idaho, List of United States Senators from Idaho.
United States Senate election in Illinois, List of United States Senators from Illinois. United States Senate election in Indiana, List of United States Senators from Indiana.
United States Senate election in Iowa, List of United States Senators from Iowa. United States Senate election in Kansas, List of United States Senators from Kansas.
United States Senate election in Kentucky, List of United States Senators from Kentucky. United States Senate election in Louisiana, List of United States Senators from Louisiana.
United States Senate election in Maryland, List of United States Senators from Maryland. United States Senate election in Missouri, List of United States Senators from Missouri.
United States Senate election in Nevada, List of United States Senators from Nevada. United States Senate election in New Hampshire, United States Senate election in New York, United States Senate election in North Carolina, United States Senate election in North Dakota, United States Senate election in Ohio, List of United States Senators from Ohio.
United States Senate election in Oklahoma, List of United States Senators from Oklahoma. United States Senate election in Oregon, List of United States Senators from Oregon.
United States Senate election in Pennsylvania, List of United States Senators from Pennsylvania.
United States Senate election in South Carolina, United States Senate election in South Dakota, United States Senate election in Utah, List of United States Senators from Utah.
United States Senate election in Vermont, List of United States Senators from Vermont. United States Senate election in Washington, List of United States Senators from Washington.
United States Senate election in Wisconsin, List of United States Senators from Wisconsin. Majority party Minority party. Dan Coats R Retiring.
A senator, however, may challenge the presiding officer's assessment and request a recorded vote. The request may be granted only if it is seconded by one-fifth of the senators present.
In practice, however, senators second requests for recorded votes as a matter of courtesy. When a recorded vote is held, the clerk calls the roll of the Senate in alphabetical order; senators respond when their name is called.
Senators who were not in the chamber when their name was called may still cast a vote so long as the voting remains open. The vote is closed at the discretion of the presiding officer, but must remain open for a minimum of 15 minutes.
A majority of those voting determines whether the motion carries. If the vice president is not present, the motion fails. Filibustered bills require a three-fifths majority to overcome the cloture vote which usually means 60 votes and get to the normal vote where a simple majority usually 51 votes approves the bill.
This has caused some news media to confuse the 60 votes needed to overcome a filibuster with the 51 votes needed to approve a bill, with for example USA Today erroneously stating " The vote was in favor of the provision establishing concealed carry permit reciprocity in the 48 states that have concealed weapons laws.
That fell two votes short of the 60 needed to approve the measure ". On occasion, the Senate may go into what is called a secret or closed session.
During a closed session, the chamber doors are closed, cameras are turned off, and the galleries are completely cleared of anyone not sworn to secrecy, not instructed in the rules of the closed session, or not essential to the session.
Closed sessions are rare and usually held only when the Senate is discussing sensitive subject matter such as information critical to national security, private communications from the president, or deliberations during impeachment trials.
A senator may call for and force a closed session if the motion is seconded by at least one other member, but an agreement usually occurs beforehand.
The proceedings remain sealed indefinitely until the Senate votes to remove the injunction of secrecy. The latter identifies executive resolutions, treaties, and nominations reported out by Senate committee s and awaiting Senate floor action.
Both are updated each day the Senate is in session. The Senate uses committees and their subcommittees for a variety of purposes, including the review of bills and the oversight of the executive branch.
Formally, the whole Senate appoints committee members. In practice, however, the choice of members is made by the political parties. Generally, each party honors the preferences of individual senators, giving priority based on seniority.
Each party is allocated seats on committees in proportion to its overall strength. Most committee work is performed by 16 standing committees, each of which has jurisdiction over a field such as finance or foreign relations.
Each standing committee may consider, amend, and report bills that fall under its jurisdiction. Furthermore, each standing committee considers presidential nominations to offices related to its jurisdiction.
For instance, the Judiciary Committee considers nominees for judgeships, and the Foreign Relations Committee considers nominees for positions in the Department of State.
Committees may block nominees and impede bills from reaching the floor of the Senate. Standing committees also oversee the departments and agencies of the executive branch.
In discharging their duties, standing committees have the power to hold hearings and to subpoena witnesses and evidence. The Senate also has several committees that are not considered standing committees.
Such bodies are generally known as select or special committees ; examples include the Select Committee on Ethics and the Special Committee on Aging.
Legislation is referred to some of these committees, although the bulk of legislative work is performed by the standing committees.
Committees may be established on an ad hoc basis for specific purposes; for instance, the Senate Watergate Committee was a special committee created to investigate the Watergate scandal.
Such temporary committees cease to exist after fulfilling their tasks. The Congress includes joint committees, which include members from both the Senate and the House of Representatives.
Some joint committees oversee independent government bodies; for instance, the Joint Committee on the Library oversees the Library of Congress.
Other joint committees serve to make advisory reports; for example, there exists a Joint Committee on Taxation.
Bills and nominees are not referred to joint committees. Hence, the power of joint committees is considerably lower than those of standing committees.
Each Senate committee and subcommittee is led by a chair usually a member of the majority party.
Formerly, committee chairs were determined purely by seniority; as a result, several elderly senators continued to serve as chair despite severe physical infirmity or even senility.
The chairs hold extensive powers: This last role was particularly important in mid-century, when floor amendments were thought not to be collegial.
They also have considerable influence: The Senate rules and customs were reformed in the twentieth century, largely in the s.
Committee chairmen have less power and are generally more moderate and collegial in exercising it, than they were before reform. Recent criticisms of the Senate's operations object to what the critics argue is obsolescence as a result of partisan paralysis and a preponderance of arcane rules.
Bills may be introduced in either chamber of Congress. However, the Constitution's Origination Clause provides that "All bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives".
Furthermore, the House of Representatives holds that the Senate does not have the power to originate appropriation bills , or bills authorizing the expenditure of federal funds.
However, when the Senate originates an appropriations bill, the House simply refuses to consider it, thereby settling the dispute in practice.
The constitutional provision barring the Senate from introducing revenue bills is based on the practice of the British Parliament , in which only the House of Commons may originate such measures.
Although the Constitution gave the House the power to initiate revenue bills, in practice the Senate is equal to the House in the respect of spending.
As Woodrow Wilson wrote:. The Senate's right to amend general appropriation bills has been allowed the widest possible scope. The upper house may add to them what it pleases; may go altogether outside of their original provisions and tack to them entirely new features of legislation, altering not only the amounts but even the objects of expenditure, and making out of the materials sent them by the popular chamber measures of an almost totally new character.
The approval of both houses is required for any bill, including a revenue bill, to become law. Both Houses must pass the same version of the bill; if there are differences, they may be resolved by sending amendments back and forth or by a conference committee , which includes members of both bodies.
The Constitution provides several unique functions for the Senate that form its ability to "check and balance" the powers of other elements of the Federal Government.
These include the requirement that the Senate may advise and must consent to some of the president's government appointments; also the Senate must consent to all treaties with foreign governments; it tries all impeachments, and it elects the vice president in the event no person gets a majority of the electoral votes.
The president can make certain appointments only with the advice and consent of the Senate. Officials whose appointments require the Senate's approval include members of the Cabinet, heads of most federal executive agencies, ambassadors , Justices of the Supreme Court, and other federal judges.
Under Article II, Section 2, of the Constitution, a large number of government appointments are subject to potential confirmation; however, Congress has passed legislation to authorize the appointment of many officials without the Senate's consent usually, confirmation requirements are reserved for those officials with the most significant final decision-making authority.
Typically, a nominee is first subject to a hearing before a Senate committee. Thereafter, the nomination is considered by the full Senate. The majority of nominees are confirmed, but in a small number of cases each year, Senate committees purposely fail to act on a nomination to block it.
In addition, the president sometimes withdraws nominations when they appear unlikely to be confirmed. Because of this, outright rejections of nominees on the Senate floor are infrequent there have been only nine Cabinet nominees rejected outright in United States history.
The powers of the Senate concerning nominations are, however, subject to some constraints. For instance, the Constitution provides that the president may make an appointment during a congressional recess without the Senate's advice and consent.
The recess appointment remains valid only temporarily; the office becomes vacant again at the end of the next congressional session.
Nevertheless, presidents have frequently used recess appointments to circumvent the possibility that the Senate may reject the nominee.
Furthermore, as the Supreme Court held in Myers v. United States , although the Senate's advice and consent is required for the appointment of certain executive branch officials, it is not necessary for their removal.
Senate passed a legally non-binding resolution against recess appointments. The Senate also has a role in ratifying treaties.
The Constitution provides that the president may only "make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur" in order to benefit from the Senate's advice and consent and give each state an equal vote in the process.
However, not all international agreements are considered treaties under US domestic law, even if they are considered treaties under international law.
Congress has passed laws authorizing the president to conclude executive agreements without action by the Senate. Similarly, the president may make congressional-executive agreements with the approval of a simple majority in each House of Congress, rather than a two-thirds majority in the Senate.
Neither executive agreements nor congressional-executive agreements are mentioned in the Constitution, leading some scholars such as Laurence Tribe and John Yoo  to suggest that they unconstitutionally circumvent the treaty-ratification process.
However, courts have upheld the validity of such agreements. The Constitution empowers the House of Representatives to impeach federal officials for "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors" and empowers the Senate to try such impeachments.
During an impeachment trial, senators are constitutionally required to sit on oath or affirmation. Conviction requires a two-thirds majority of the senators present.
A convicted official is automatically removed from office; in addition, the Senate may stipulate that the defendant be banned from holding office.
No further punishment is permitted during the impeachment proceedings; however, the party may face criminal penalties in a normal court of law.
The House of Representatives has impeached sixteen officials, of whom seven were convicted. One resigned before the Senate could complete the trial.
Andrew Johnson in and Bill Clinton in Both trials ended in acquittal; in Johnson's case, the Senate fell one vote short of the two-thirds majority required for conviction.
Under the Twelfth Amendment , the Senate has the power to elect the vice president if no vice presidential candidate receives a majority of votes in the Electoral College.
The Twelfth Amendment requires the Senate to choose from the two candidates with the highest numbers of electoral votes. Electoral College deadlocks are rare.
The Senate has only broken a deadlock once; in , it elected Richard Mentor Johnson. The House elects the president if the Electoral College deadlocks on that choice.
The following are published by the Senate Historical Office. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Seal of the U. Upper house of the United States Congress.
President of the Senate. Mike Pence R Since January 20, Orrin Hatch R Since January 6, Chuck Schumer D Since January 3, John Cornyn R Since January 3, Dick Durbin D Since January 3, History of the United States Senate.
Current members of the United States Senate. Current members by seniority by class. Party leadership of the United States Senate.
Executive session Morning business. Quorum Quorum call Salaries. Saxbe fix Seal Holds. Senatorial courtesy Standing Rules. Senate office buildings Dirksen Hart Russell.
List of United States Senate elections. Constitution of the United States Law Taxation. Presidential elections Midterm elections Off-year elections.
Democratic Republican Third parties. Seniority in the United States Senate. Clay pigeon floor procedure. Closed sessions of the United States Senate.
United States congressional committee. Retrieved October 4, The Yale Law Journal. Berke September 12, The New York Times. Friedman March 30, A Reappraisal of the Seventeenth Amendment, —".
Agenda Content and Senate Partisanship, ". Article 1, Section 1 ". Retrieved March 22, Notes of the Secret Debates of the Federal Convention of Archived from the original on November 23, Archived from the original on November 1, Retrieved September 17, Retrieved November 17, United States Printing Office.
Retrieved November 13, Archived PDF from the original on June 5, Retrieved October 13, Massachusetts Great and General Court.
Archived from the original on May 28, Retrieved October 2, Retrieved June 19, Retrieved 8 November Retrieved July 11, Retrieved November 10, Retrieved February 8, Gold, Senate Procedure and Practice , p.
Every member, when he speaks, shall address the chair, standing in his place, and when he has finished, shall sit down.
Lazing on a Senate afternoon". Voting in the Senate". Retrieved April 11, Zelizer, On Capitol Hill describes this process; one of the reforms is that seniority within the majority party can now be bypassed, so that chairs do run the risk of being deposed by their colleagues.
See in particular p. Archived from the original on August 10, Retrieved January 1, The Invention of the United States Senate , p.
A Study in American Politics , pp. According to the Library of Congress , the Constitution provides the origination requirement for revenue bills, whereas tradition provides the origination requirement for appropriation bills.
Text common to all printings or "editions"; in Papers of Woodrow Wilson it is Vol. Retrieved November 20, ; Ritchie, Congress p.
April , pp. Retrieved November 20, The Senate of the United States: A Bicentennial History Krieger, The Senators, the Representatives and the Governors: Brady and Mathew D.
Party, Process, and Political Change in Congress: The Years of Lyndon Johnson. Master of the Senate. Press of Kansas, Politics and Policy in the th and th Congresses ; massive, highly detailed summary of Congressional activity, as well as major executive and judicial decisions; based on Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report and the annual CQ almanac.
Congressional Quarterly Congress and the Nation: Congress and the Nation: Breaking the Heart of the World: Woodrow Wilson and the Fight for the League of Nations.
Congress and Its Members , 6th ed. Legislative procedure, informal practices, and member information Gould, Lewis L. The Most Exclusive Club: Hubris and Heroism in the U.
Senate, — Sharpe, The Road to Mass Democracy: Original Intent and the Seventeenth Amendment. Popular elections of senators Lee, Frances E.
Sizing Up the Senate: The Unequal Consequences of Equal Representation. MacNeil, Neil and Richard A. Oxford University Press, The United States Senate Years, — From Obstruction to Moderation: The Transformation of Senate Conservatism, — Press Mann, Robert.
The Walls of Jericho: Harcourt Brace, Ritchie, Donald A. Congress and the Washington Correspondents. The Congress of the United States: A Student Companion 2nd ed.
A Very Short Introduction. The Making of an American Senate: Reconstitutive Change in Congress, — Mike Mansfield, Majority Leader: Bicameral Resolution in Congress.
Always a Loyal Democrat. Arkansas Democrat who was Majority leader in s Wilson, Woodrow. Houghton Mifflin, ; also 15th ed.
Wirls, Daniel and Wirls, Stephen. Early history Zelizer, Julian E. The Building of Democracy overview.